原子能科学技术 ›› 2022, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (5): 825-834.DOI: 10.7538/yzk.2022.youxian.0110

• 核数据实验测量研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于实验与模拟相结合的气体样品(n,α)反应截面测量方法研究

胡益伟;崔增琪;刘杰;白浩帆;夏聪;江浩雨;陈金象;张国辉   

  1. 北京大学 物理学院 重离子物理研究所 核物理与核技术国家重点实验室,北京100871
  • 出版日期:2022-05-20 发布日期:2022-05-20

Cross Section Measurement Method for (n,α) Reaction of Gas Sample Based on Combination of Experiment and Simulation

HU Yiwei;CUI Zengqi;LIU Jie;BAI Haofan;XIA Cong;JIANG Haoyu;CHEN Jinxiang;ZHANG Guohui   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Online:2022-05-20 Published:2022-05-20

摘要: 建立了一套利用屏栅电离室测量快中子诱发气体样品(n,α)反应截面的方法。针对气体样品测量中存在的样品核数确定、中子注量测量、待测事件挑选等问题,本方法首先利用模拟计算结果选择合适的气体样品有效区域,使得事件区尽量无本底覆盖且易于统计;再利用中子准直器和阴极、阳极信号时间信息,分离并统计样品有效区域产生的事件数;最后利用实验测量的238U(n,f)裂变计数和SuperMC模拟结果,得到有效区域内的中子注量。利用该方法在中子能量为471、487、500、512、529和545 MeV的能点系统地测量了14N(n,α0)反应的相对截面,结果与ENDF/BⅧ0符合良好。

关键词: (n,α)反应, 屏栅电离室, 共振截面, 气体样品

Abstract: A method for measuring (n,α) reaction cross sections of the gas sample induced by fast neutrons using a gridded ionization chamber (GIC) was established. There are several advantages using the GIC to measure gas samples. With this method, the (n,α) reaction cross sections of inert gases which are hard to exist as a solid can be measured. And the (n,α) reaction cross section for α particle emitting in all directions can be directly measured by using the gas sample. Furthermore, compared with using solid samples, using gas samples have far more nuclei in the measurement samples. Therefore, it is feasible to use neutron source with a better energy resolution to measure the resonance cross sections with gas sample. However, there are many problems to be solved when measuring (n,α) reaction cross section of gas sample by using the GIC. On the one hand, the nuclear reaction event will be affected by the wall effect, when the nuclear reaction is generated near the electrodes of the GIC or at the edge of the electric field. The wall effect will cause the measured event to locate outside the event area which cannot be counted. Not only is the number of nuclei of the gas samples involved in the (n,α) reaction difficult to determine, but the number of events, which are affected by the background or located below the threshold, is also difficult to count. On the other hand, the neutron fluence involved in the measurement of (n,α) reaction cross section of gas sample is difficult to measure. Aiming at solving the problems of the determination of the sample nuclei number, the measurement of neutron fluence, and the selection of events, which are all difficult for the gas sample, this method included three steps: First, simulation calculation was performed to select a suitable effective volume of the gas samples, so that the event is free of background and easy to be counted. Second, the neutron collimator and the timing information of cathode and anode signals were used to select and count the events generated in the effective volume of the gas sample. Third, combining the fission fragment measurement of the 238U(n,f) reaction and the simulation based on SuperMC, the neutron fluence through the effective volume was obtained. Measurements of relative cross sections of the 14N(n,α0) reaction using gas sample were performed at En=471, 487, 500, 512, 529, and 545 MeV. The results are in good agreement with those of ENDF/BⅧ0 which verified the present measurement method.

Key words: (n,α) reaction, gridded ionization chamber, resonance cross section, gas sample